Here are some Gobekli Tepe pillar engravings, and related artworks, demonstrating the new method of structural art analysis (from Mindprint, 2014, Lulu.com, 200 illustrations, about $28). The site in Turkey is dated about BC 8000.
The animal top centre on the famous pillar D43 is a fox burrowing to the right. It expresses type 15 Gemini, which is a canine in 8% of artworks worldwide. This update corrects its earlier interpretation as an animal rampant to the left. Two dents on its head, on the right, are not misplaced eyes, but probably ancient damage. See a new paper on the archaeo astronomy of Gobekli art, on http://www.stoneprint.wordpress.com and with larger images on Academia.edu.
See structural analyses of buildings, villages, temples, complexes, pyramid fields, geoglyphs and cities, including Gobekli Tepe houses plans, and the Gobekli Tepe village plan, at http://www.stoneprint.wordpress.com
My second book, Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities (400 pages, 130 illustrations), demonstrates that cultural grammar, or the periodic table of culture, is innate, and readable in all our works, including site plans.
Pillar D43 is an Ice Age thaw styling portrait
Gobekli Tepe pillar D43 expresses the usual set of visual archetypes; in the standard sequence; with their eyes on the standard ocular (eye-to-eye) grid, with the two usual exceptions to one heart and one womb; and with the standard tri-polar structure, in which the orientation of the cultural Age is embedded. The implied time-frame is in the Younger Dryas, or Ice Age thaw, about 5000 years before Sumerian culture.
The archetypes in this artwork are (noting the global frequency averages of some relevant features in brackets);
1 Taurus; Hut or keep, of reed bundles, for stock (See Inanna huts below. 1 /2 is/are bovid in 19% of artworks). Some stone figurines here are of animals with loophole bodies for tying down a rope, like weights for leather hut covers in China, and trade weights in Babylonia.
2 Taurus; The same hut or keep, implying animals inside (see 1).
3 Cista; Spider hut totem (often a woven texture). In some emblems, this type is a crayfish (‘decan’ Cetus tail)m since shape and posture is just as expressive as species.
3 Aries; Flamingo or long-necked (42% on average) bird hut totem.
4 Pisces; Water-bird or ibis (often a bird).
4p Galactic South Pole; Bird knee (50% limb joint on average); and front edge upper loincloth (‘decan’ Pegasus).
5:20 Aquarius; Water-bird’s heart (of the opposite 12/13; or the bird body forms a snake ‘tailcoat’ head (See John Baptist icons).
5:21 Aquarius; Bird, or vulture chick, with a ‘tailcoat’ body, nearest the pole (more usual at 6).
6 Capricornus; Triangular body, or ‘tailcoat’ head (more usual at 5).
7 Sagittarius; Skin bag (bag 25% on average), headless, perhaps a skin stuffed with birds as a meat fermentation cache, as arctic people still make (BBC DVD: Human planet). Rock artists often expresses type 7 as a transforming ‘buck bag’ or cocoon.
7g Galactic Centre; on the large bird neck (limb joint).
8 Scorpius; Large bird.
9 Scorpius; Large scorpion (rare, but some zodiacs express this option, not implying that the Gobekli Tepe pillar art is a zodiac; see my detailed paper cited above).
10 Cista Lid; Fox (decan Lupus, Wolf).
10 Libra; Snake (decan Serpens).
11 Virgo; Rounded womb (87%), of the vulture, a maternal animal.
11p Galactic Pole; Vulture elbow (68% limb joint).
12 Leo; Heart (85%) or pendant, opposite a heart-shaped body.
13 Leo; Vulture (some characters express two types in minimalist artworks).
14 Cancer; Small bird hut totem, far out (45% ingress /egress).
15 Gemini; Fox (canine 8%) burrowing to the right, perhaps expressing the end of Age Gemini.
The celestial pole is on an orb, on the vertical plane, placing summer in Leo1, thus spring and the time-frame in Age Taurus1, as in some other late Ice Age artworks and buildings (several are demonstrated in Stoneprint). These features may support archaeological dating, however the rate of precession and obliquity at that time is uncertain (contrary to astronomy assumptions. See the Dodwell curve in the paper cited above).
Cosmology and myths are aids to interpretation, but art is not astronomy, nor just illustration of myth or ritual or calendars. However constellations are a good myth map, with some inbuilt optionality. For example, Sagittarius could be a chariot, centaur, bag, newborn antelope, or teapot (the latter is not archetypal!). The pillar edge or ‘face’, below the loincloth (decan Pegasus?), has another spider carving (Galactic South Pole at the Cetus spout?), perhaps expressing the triple polar alignment on the Pisces-Virgo axis in Age Gemini-Taurus.
Ancient domestic technology
A row of Inanna temple huts in a Babylonian cylinder seal imprint, resemble the Gobekli hut shapes; and the suspended totem animals (here alongside Inanna rosette poles); and the woven reed textures in the landscape; and the two central pillars in the houses.
Pairs of pillars, as of Samson, or Hercules, express daily and yearly poles, as in cosmology. Gobekli huts may have had beams of reed bundles, as legendary Noah’s ark had. Biblical ‘gopher’ is from KPR, perhaps tar, not ‘wood’. Revival of species was probably a major Younger Dryas theme, retained in legends and myths such as of Noah’s ark.
Gobekli Tepe pillar H56 expresses the axial Age Gemini-Taurus spring
The relief carving on Gobekli Tepe pillar H56 is one of the only two complex artworks discovered at the site (and of the Younger Dryas era worldwide) up to 2017. The first structuralist analysis of it (in Mindprint, 2014) was made on a low resolution night photograph available at the time. A tracing made by the archaeology team on site enabled better identification of the species, and the position of their eyes, thus a definitive structuralist analysis. Polar markers and the resulting Age Gemini calibration, is unaffected.
The number of known optional features doubled in 2017, after papers on various themes in rock art and art history published in the anthropology journal Expression. Average rates of expression of more optional features became known from statistics of a larger sample of artworks and rock art works worldwide (the April 2017 review, due for slight adjustments after a review of 50 miniature artworks on cylinder seals, stamps and seal rings in 2018). This review of subconscious structuralist elements in pillar H56 uses the 2017 caption format standard (more detailed than the informal format in earlier posts, and at pillar D43 above).
House H may express type 15g, the galactic ‘gate’ on Gobekli Hill (see notes on the general theme on this artwork below). Archetypes in the Gobekli Tepe pillar H56 relief engraving of about BC 8000 is:
Type label; Character (archetypal features with known global average frequencies):
1 Taurus; Hippopotamus B (bovid 19%). And large central bird (bird 10%).
2 Taurus; Bird C (bird 10%), preening (twisted 48%), in a group of four (cluster 14%).
3c Cista; Bird B (c-types are off the grid).
3 Aries; Bird A, sitting (more typical of 4). And hippopotamus A (‘dragon’?). And the large central snake, probably Arabian Horned viper (dragon). The eyes of the species sit near the front of the head.
4 Pisces; Bird E (bird 6%), sitting (squatting 25%. And bird F (bird 6%, twins 11%), sitting (squatting 25%).
4 PiscesB; Bird G (bird 6%), in a row of four (twins) with two chicks (twins).
4p Galactic South Pole; bird neck (unusual) or snake jaw (limb joint 50%).
5:20 Aquarius; Small bird. On the pillar front edge here, is a bovid skull (tailcoat head?). And bird G’s chest (heart, of 12).
6c Cista Tail; Snakes or eels (weave).
6 Capricornus; Snake (reptile), perhaps Arabian viper (horned), or eel (amphibian, snake-like dragon), far from the centre (egress /ingress 48%).
7 Sagittarius; Small bird (juvenile 10%) or hatchling (unfolding 17%). And small antelope (juvenile 10%), perhaps an ibex (horned, of 6).
7g Galactic Centre: Foreground (path or water) bird beak (limb joint).
8 Scorpius; Bird with wings forward (bent forward 30%).
9 Scorpius; (pillar 50%, bent forward 30%, healer 11%, strength 9%, ritual).
10 Libra; Bird.
11 Virgo; Bird midriff (womb 87%).
11 VirgoB; Hippopotamus G midriff (womb 87%, water 11%).
11p Galactic Pole: Hippopotamus G’s jaw (limb joint 68%, decan Ursa retro jaw). And hippopotamus F, juvenile.
12 Leo; Hippoptamus E’s chest (heart 85%, water-work 30%, decan Ursa).
14c Cista Head; Hippopotamus D, juvenile (decan Ursa Minor).
14 Cancer; Hippopotamus C with open jaw and canine tooth upward, or a rhinoceros (decan Ursa Minor). And a large snake (decan Hydra).
15 Gemini; Vulture spread (rampant), or “crane eating a snake” (Schmidt 2012). Rear-facing (subconsciously expressing Age Gemini ‘eating’ spring from Age Cancer /Hydra, or end spring in Gemini /Ursa Minor?). It is nearer the centre, but ingress is more typical of type 14.
15g Galactic Gate; Snake at the top (gate 20%, churn).
Extra characters; Five birds and ten snakes. See notes on the general theme below.
The axial centre or ecliptic pole is unmarked as usual (limb joint in only 26% on average).
The ‘celestial south pole’ is on a crane beak (limb joint 37%). The horizontal plane confirms ‘summer’ in Virgo, thus ‘spring’ and the cultural time-frame in Age Gemini, confirmed by the top central type. In later Age Taurus works, the summer position is sometimes marked by a spread bird (which in myth, calendars and astronomy appears as the decan, supporting or ‘determinant’ character of Ursa or Ursa Minor; as an eagle in Mesopotamian art; or as the pregnant hippopotamus Taweret in Egyptian art (see the Seti1 astronomical ceiling in Mindprint, and in one of my papers in Expression; or a bear in classical European myth, or a horse in some Renaissance emblems). However in Age Gemini, Ursa Minor was probably a spring marker, which could be tested after about 50 Younger Dryas artworks may become available.
General themes here include type 7g Galactic Centre (water 15%, gate, juncture, path, the point from where visual inspiration may unfold); and its opposite 15g Galactic Gate (churn, gate 20%, river 6%, juncture, path, where two equators cross, and where the celestial equators also crossed in Age Gemini-Taurus, the axial age of re-creation after the very long Ice Age), here on the vertical axis of the work. The conscious theme may include spring migration. Another general theme in Gobekli Tepe art and village, is the four half-types, 3c Cista Mystica (basket, container, snakes), 6c Cista Tail, 10c Cista Lid (revelation, disc, snake), and 14c Cista Head (prediction, precession). The site may have been an oracle (compare similar themes at much later Greek oracles, and their scenes in art). Seven hippopotami and many birds set yet another general theme, of circumpolar characters (see the note on decan Usa as a bird, or as the pregnant hippopotamus Taweret, above). Correspondences revealed by structuralist analyses are too many, too holographic, and too embedded in several media, to support the paradigm of cultural ‘invention’ development, adoption and diffusion’. Only archetypal inspiration could sustain the five levels of structure revealed here, and demonstrated in the art, rock art, building sites, calendars, myth and cosmology of all cultures and all eras. The number of structuralist analysis examples already exceed 600, of which about 300 have been published. The five structural layers of expression are subconscious to artists, architects, builders and members of any culture.
The above analysis will be included in the second edition of Stoneprint, with a score for testing the validity of about 80 known recurrent features in visual media.
The polar ‘clock’ usually indicates the age prior to the work, thus the age of the formation of the artist’s culture. Calibrators in art are never detailed enough for dating.
Popular hut technology
Interpretation of some Gobekli Tepe pillar art features, is informed by a Kurdish stele with relief engravings (after HPG. Xakk.org. Typology and axial grid by Edmond Furter). Compare the three levels of rooms, to three-layered Inana temple huts. Birds above and below recall bird navigators of Noah’s ark. Birds were important scouts of land and vegetation re-emerging in the Younger Dryas thaw. The bird below left perches on a T-shaped pillar, as at Gobekli. Here it expresses type 7 Sagittarius, its head over a reed bundle or rope (of type 7). 11 Virgo is a bird egg, and bird womb (87%). People in the middle register each have a bench, as in Gobekli houses.
* See papers on Gobekli Tepe art and bulidings, and the implications for science and culture, on http://www.stoneprint.wordpress.com and related papers in the anthropology journal Expression, volume 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, Atelier Etno, Italy.
* See an article on Gobekli Tepe pillar art structural analysis, in context with classical, modern, and rock art, and in context with scientific testability, on Grahamhancock.com, under Articles; Author of the Month, September 2015.
* See a paper on structural analyses of Matobo region rock art, presented at the ASAPA conference in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2015 (UZ, in press for 2018).
* See structural art analysis method, in context with philosophy, structural anthropology, depth psychology, and art history, with 200 demonstrations, in Furter, ED, 2014 Mindprint, the subconscious art code, Lulu.com, USA, about $28.
* Order the book Stoneprint (2016) via edmondfurter at gmail dot com.
- See updates on structuralist analyses of Pictish beasts, crop circles, Paris, and London, in Stoneprint Journal editions of 16 pages. The edition featuring London is available from Lulu.com, 24 pages, $18.